Fruit

Fruit are a great source of fiber, vitamins and minerals essential for good health and the prevention of many diseases. Many studies have shown that a diet rich in fruit reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and type 2 diabetes and may protect against certain types of cancers. (1)Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, et al. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. European Journal of Nutrition. September 2012, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 637-663. Available here. (2)Ness AR, Powless JW. Fruit and Vegetables, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1997. Vol. 26, No 1. Available here. (3)Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables. Adv Nutr July 2012 Adv Nutr vol. 3: 506-516, 2012. Available here. (4)Trock B, Lanza E, Greenwald P. Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990 Apr 18;82(8):650-61. Available here.

There are two definitions of fruit: the botanic definition and the culinary definition.

Botanical definition: mature ovaries containing seeds. The ovary protects the seeds during their development. Fruit include grains, nuts, legumes, drupes and berries. Some plants commonly known as vegetables are also fruit in the botanical sense (e.g. tomatoes, cucumbers). In the culinary sense, however, using the botanic definition makes no sense and makes communicating about food very confusing.

The culinary definition is dictated by a culinary custom rather than basing it on its anatomy. Fruit, in the culinary sense, considers the edible parts of plants that usually contain seeds (may also be seedless such as bananas, watermelons, tomatoes, grapes and citrus fruit). Culinary fruit is characterized by a sweet or tart taste and are usually used for snacks, desserts, breakfasts, smoothies or juices but also in savory cooking to add the sweet or sour taste in food.

References   [ + ]

1. Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, et al. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. European Journal of Nutrition. September 2012, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 637-663. Available here.
2. Ness AR, Powless JW. Fruit and Vegetables, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1997. Vol. 26, No 1. Available here.
3. Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables. Adv Nutr July 2012 Adv Nutr vol. 3: 506-516, 2012. Available here.
4. Trock B, Lanza E, Greenwald P. Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990 Apr 18;82(8):650-61. Available here.

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