Is margarine better for you than butter?

Is margarine healthier than butter?

Pawel Malczewski
facebook twitter google pinterest BUSTED
 

Short summary

Margarine was invented as a cheap substitute for butter and not to be healthy. Butter contains saturated fats and cholesterol. But are those components of butter important to your health?

Find out in this article about the differences between butter and margarine. You will also discover which one is not as healthy as many people think. For a quick answer click here.

Explanation

Margarine and butter serve the same basic purpose, as a spread or to be used in various cooking methods, such as frying or baking.

Sales trajectory of Butter and Margarine

While butter has been used for thousands of years, margarine was invented in 1869. In the 1900s, margarine became the most commonly used substitute for butter. (1)Dairy Farmers of Canada. The history of butter. Available here.

Margarine sales reached their peak in the 1980s, coinciding with the anti-saturated fat campaign. Butter was demonized and margarine became the preferred “healthy” choice, recommended by the majority of health professionals and health organizations.

However, the ever-growing public awareness about the trans fats contents in margarine, the lack of evidence about the negative health impacts of saturated fats and the increased preference for a simple and delicious product, such as butter, led to a decrease in the sales of margarine and an increase of butter sales in the 1990s.

Sales of margarine vs butter

In the last four decades  additional evidence has emerged that saturated fats don’t cause any harm. This evidence is being slowly fed to the public, although it will take years before the current mainstream nutrition changes its position, since it involves politics and strong support from the industry.

Thankfully, the popularity of margarine has been dropping for the last few decades.

Differences between Butter and Margarine

The best way to explain the differences is to compare the two products side by side in the table.

Butter vs Margarine

ButterMargarine

INGREDIENTS

The main ingredient is cow’s milk fat (80% of the contents). However, it can also be made from the milk of other ruminant animals. The range of butter components depend on the product. It varies from just cream (from cow’s milk), to a wide range of ingredients, such as milk constituents (whey or casein), salt, colorings and bacterial cultures. It also includes ingredients to improve texture, appearance and flavor (e.g. sweetness), to prevent the separation of liquid and to extend shelf life. (2)FDA - U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Use of nutrient content claims for butter. CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Available here.The main ingredient is oil, derived from oilseeds such as canola, soybean, olive, or cottonseed (80% of contents). Some of these oils are usually genetically modified. To imitate butter and achieve similar properties, it takes several ingredients, many of them artificial.
Ingredients may include: water, albumin, whey, casein, soy protein isolate, emulsifiers, preservatives, color additives, artificial flavoring, acidulants, alkalizers, carbohydrate sweeteners and salt.
For the final product to be called margarine there are, however, some legal requirements. (read more..)

TRANS FATS

Contains naturally occurring trans fats from ruminant animals (rTFAs). These have been proven not to be harmful and may even have some positive effects on health. (read more..)Margarines that are partially hydrogenated, contain considerable amounts of industrially produced trans fats (iTFAs). iTFAs have a clear association with cardiovascular diseases and various cancers. (read more..)
Margarines that are not partially hydrogenated may contain some iTFAs, but within the safe range.
Spotting the trans fats contents in margarine may be tricky, however. (read more..)

NUTRIENTS

Butter has naturally occurring fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Butter made from milk of grass-fed cows (as opposed to grain fed) contains a higher omega-3 to omega-6 ratio (anti-inflammatory properties), higher vitamin K2 contents (protective from cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and cancer), higher CLA (anticancer properties) and butyrate fatty acids (anti-inflammatory properties).Since it is an artificial product, stripped from many natural constituents during the refining of oils, margarines are often fortified with various nutrients, such as vitamins and plant sterols. The nutritional composition of margarines varies, depending on the brand. Fortified nutrients are displayed on the product label.

FAT TYPES

Fat in butter is predominantly made of saturated fatty acids, which have been proven not to have negative impacts on health. Saturated fats increase the good HDL cholesterol and the benign large LDL cholesterol. It has not been shown that they increase the risk of heart disease, as many sources claim. (3)Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Apr 13;169(7):659-69. Available here.Fat in margarine is mostly made of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially a high proportion of omega-6 fatty acids which are pro-inflammatory. (4)Simopoulos AP. The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine. Volume: 233 issue: 6, page(s): 674-688. Available here. (5)Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;60(9):502-7. Epub 2006 Aug 28. Available here.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are less stable, since they oxidize easier causing damage to the cell structures. (6)Ghosh S, Novak EM, Innis SM. Cardiac proinflammatory pathways are altered with different dietary n-6 linoleic to n-3 α-linolenic acid ratios in normal, fat-fed pigs. 2007 Vol. 293 no. 5, H2919-H2927. Available here.

PLANT STEROLS

No plant sterols, unless added. (7)Dairy Farmers. Heart active milk. Available here.Margarines generally contain plant sterols. It is advised to consume 2-3g of plant sterols daily to reduce the cholesterol levels by up to around 10%. Such amounts are found in plant sterol enriched margarines (usually clearly stated on the label). 2-3g is equivalent to 1-1.5 tablespoon of enriched margarine. (8)Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, Millen BE, Ellison RC, Castelli WP. Margarine intake and subsequent coronary heart disease in men. Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):144-9. Available here. Plant sterols are a controversial subject, however. Although the reduction of cholesterol may seem significant, overall plant sterols are not linked with a reduction of inflammation (9)Rocha VZ, Ras RT, Gagliardi AC, Mangili LC, Trautwein EA, Santos RD. Effects of phytosterols on markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. May 2016Volume 248, Pages 76–83. Available here., and have not been shown to reduce the risks of cardiovascular, heart disease or heart attacks. (10)Kozłowska-Wojciechowska M, Jastrzebska M, Naruszewicz M, Foltyńska A. Impact of margarine enriched with plant sterols on blood lipids, platelet function, and fibrinogen level in young men. Metabolism. 2003 Nov;52(11):1373-8. Available here. (11)Rochaa VZ, Rasb RT, Gagliardia AC, Mangilia LC, Trautweinb EA, Santos RD. Effects of phytosterols on markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. Volume 248, May 2016, Pages 76–83. Available here. (12)Genser G, Silbernagel G, De Backer G, Bruckert E, Carmena R, Chapman MJ, et al. Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J (2012) 33 (4): 444-451. Available here. Some studies actually show that there is an association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. (13)Sudhop T, Gottwald BM, von Bergmann K. Serum plant sterols as a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease. Metabolism. 2002 Dec;51(12):1519-21. Available here.

CHOLESTEROL CONTENTS

Contains cholesterol. Note that the negative effects on the cardiovascular health of dietary cholesterol was debunked over a decade ago. (read more..)Modern margarine products are made of plants. Therefore, they don’t contain cholesterol.

EFFECT ON BLOOD CHOLESTEROL

Since it has a considerable proportion of saturated fatty acids, it increases total cholesterol including HDL and LDL cholesterol. The LDL cholesterol type that increases is, however, the harmless, larger and less dense one. (14)Soedamah-Muthu SS, Ding EL, Al-Delaimy WK, Hu FB, Engberink MF, Willett WC, Geleijnse JM. Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):158-71. Available here.Although the plant sterols and sterols present in fortified margarines reduce both HDL and LDL cholesterol, they have an insignificant impact on inflammation – one of the most significant risks of atherosclerosis. (15)Rocha VZ, Ras RT, Gagliardi AC, Mangili LC, Trautwein EA, Santos RD. Effects of phytosterols on markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. May 2016Volume 248, Pages 76–83. Available here. (16)Talbot C, Plat J, Ritsch A, Mensink R. Plant stanol supplementation lowers CETP-mass, but not CETP-activity, in healthy subjects. Athorosclerosis. September 2016Volume 252, Page e91 . Available here.

INFLAMMATION

No adverse effect on inflammation. Some evidence even shows anti-inflammatory effects. (17)Labonté ME, Couture P, Richard C, Desroches S, Lamarche B. Impact of dairy products on biomarkers of inflammation: a systematic review of randomized controlled nutritional intervention studies in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr April 2013. vol. 97 no. 4 706-717. Available here.The high amount of omega-6 fatty acids, present in margarine, increases the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. These specialized fatty acids play an important role in immunity. Inflammation is one of the immune reactions and part of a healing process due to injury. However, when it is chronic, it may lead to vascular damage and result in cardiovascular disease. (18)Labonté ME, Couture P, Richard C, Desroches S, Lamarche B. Impact of dairy products on biomarkers of inflammation: a systematic review of randomized controlled nutritional intervention studies in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr April 2013. vol. 97 no. 4 706-717. Available here.

HOW ITS MADE

Butter mainly involves churning the cream until it becomes solid.
Industrially produced butter involves very little processing: a small number of steps that don’t require chemicals or high temperatures.
A typical industrial butter making process involves pasteurization, starter culture inoculation, aging, crystallization and churning. Butter can be done easily in your own home with minimal equipment (e.g. a blender), simply by churning cream, which separates butter fat from buttermilk. (19)Food Science. Overview of the Buttermaking Process. University of Guelph. Available here.
The production of margarine involves various processes with the aid of a variety of chemicals and materials.
The processes of making margarine start from oil extraction and refining.
The production of margarine from the refined oils involves mixing them with a wide range of additives, such as emulsifiers, natural colors, vitamins, antioxidants, flavors and various powdered ingredients. It follows the processes of pasteurization, stirring under heated conditions, solidifying by chilling and crystallization.
The production of some margarines involves the process of hydrogenation that creates dangerous fatty acids, called trans fats.
The desired properties of margarines are achieved by mixing different proportions of specific triglycerides and involve reactions on molecular levels, such as rearrangement or fractionation.

CULINARY PROPERTIES

Pure butter is quite hard at fridge temperature.
Butter spreads are designed to be softer and more usable in the kitchen. However, their softness is achieved by adding vegetable oils (which have a lower melting point), such as canola oil.
In terms of taste, butter is a preferred choice to margarine. Butter is better in baking, resulting in tastier and flakier pastry. (20)tellwut Results for - Butter Vs Margarine. Available here.
Margarine is softer and easier to spread.
Margarine can be used instead of butter for baking. However, it doesn’t achieve the same taste or flakiness. The higher amount of fat in margarine, the more suitable it is for baking.
Margarine products differ greatly in terms of taste, depending on the ingredients used.

WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABELS?

To choose pure butter, read the ingredient list. It should only contain milk components (it also may contain salt). It is hard in the fridge temperatures.
Spreadable butters are usually a mix of cow’s butter and vegetable oils. If the percentage of milk fat is less than 80%, it may be called something else, e.g. spread.
Avoid margarines or other spreads with partially hydrogenated oils in the ingredient list, even if trans fats contents on the nutrition facts states “0”. (read more..)
Choose margarines that don’t contain GMOs, partially hydrogenated oils and trans fats.

NOTE: Some sources compare calories in margarine and butter. Calories, however, depend on the fat contents in the product. An equal amount of fat in butter and margarine will have the same amount of calories. The bottom line is that an 80% fat margarine and 80% fat butter will have the same amount of calories. There are other spreads, not called specifically “margarine” or “butter”, that have lower contents of fat.

Why are calories even relevant in this comparison?

Counting calories has been a popular method in some FAD diets since the 1980s.  It is surprisingly still used by some weight loss/management programs. Calorie counting is actually an ineffective method of weight loss in the long term. (read more..)

Conclusion

Back to top

Butter is a natural product consisting usually of one ingredient – milk (depending on the product), that uses minimum processing (mainly churning). It is mostly made of saturated fats that are not associated with atherosclerosis or cardiovascular diseases. It contains harmless, ruminant trans fats and naturally occurring nutrients.

Butter made of milk from grass fed cows is richer in these trans fats and omega 3 fatty acids. Saturated fat in butter increases the number of harmless large fluffy types of LDL and good HDL cholesterol. In terms of taste and texture in baking, butter is superior to margarine, but not as easily spreadable (becomes hard in the fridge) as margarine, due to its high content of saturated fats.

Margarine is a highly-processed product, treated with various chemicals. It is mostly made of GMO oils and contains a wide variety of additives, some of them artificial. Margarine may contain partially hydrogenated oils, trans fats and it contains considerable amounts of omega-6 oils. These oils, in excess, cause body inflammation – one of the risk factors of heart disease. Plant sterol enriched margarine decreases the blood cholesterol levels. However, it is not relevant in decreasing the risk of heart disease.

References   [ + ]

1. Dairy Farmers of Canada. The history of butter. Available here.
2. FDA - U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Use of nutrient content claims for butter. CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Available here.
3. Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Apr 13;169(7):659-69. Available here.
4. Simopoulos AP. The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine. Volume: 233 issue: 6, page(s): 674-688. Available here.
5. Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;60(9):502-7. Epub 2006 Aug 28. Available here.
6. Ghosh S, Novak EM, Innis SM. Cardiac proinflammatory pathways are altered with different dietary n-6 linoleic to n-3 α-linolenic acid ratios in normal, fat-fed pigs. 2007 Vol. 293 no. 5, H2919-H2927. Available here.
7. Dairy Farmers. Heart active milk. Available here.
8. Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, Millen BE, Ellison RC, Castelli WP. Margarine intake and subsequent coronary heart disease in men. Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):144-9. Available here.
9. Rocha VZ, Ras RT, Gagliardi AC, Mangili LC, Trautwein EA, Santos RD. Effects of phytosterols on markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. May 2016Volume 248, Pages 76–83. Available here.
10. Kozłowska-Wojciechowska M, Jastrzebska M, Naruszewicz M, Foltyńska A. Impact of margarine enriched with plant sterols on blood lipids, platelet function, and fibrinogen level in young men. Metabolism. 2003 Nov;52(11):1373-8. Available here.
11. Rochaa VZ, Rasb RT, Gagliardia AC, Mangilia LC, Trautweinb EA, Santos RD. Effects of phytosterols on markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. Volume 248, May 2016, Pages 76–83. Available here.
12. Genser G, Silbernagel G, De Backer G, Bruckert E, Carmena R, Chapman MJ, et al. Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J (2012) 33 (4): 444-451. Available here.
13. Sudhop T, Gottwald BM, von Bergmann K. Serum plant sterols as a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease. Metabolism. 2002 Dec;51(12):1519-21. Available here.
14. Soedamah-Muthu SS, Ding EL, Al-Delaimy WK, Hu FB, Engberink MF, Willett WC, Geleijnse JM. Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):158-71. Available here.
15. Rocha VZ, Ras RT, Gagliardi AC, Mangili LC, Trautwein EA, Santos RD. Effects of phytosterols on markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. May 2016Volume 248, Pages 76–83. Available here.
16. Talbot C, Plat J, Ritsch A, Mensink R. Plant stanol supplementation lowers CETP-mass, but not CETP-activity, in healthy subjects. Athorosclerosis. September 2016Volume 252, Page e91 . Available here.
17. Labonté ME, Couture P, Richard C, Desroches S, Lamarche B. Impact of dairy products on biomarkers of inflammation: a systematic review of randomized controlled nutritional intervention studies in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr April 2013. vol. 97 no. 4 706-717. Available here.
18. Labonté ME, Couture P, Richard C, Desroches S, Lamarche B. Impact of dairy products on biomarkers of inflammation: a systematic review of randomized controlled nutritional intervention studies in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr April 2013. vol. 97 no. 4 706-717. Available here.
19. Food Science. Overview of the Buttermaking Process. University of Guelph. Available here.
20. tellwut Results for - Butter Vs Margarine. Available here.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *