Is milk bad for you

Is milk bad for you?

Pawel Malczewski
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Short summary

Scientific findings show that milk is not harmful to your health unless you drink more than you can digest, you have an allergy to the cow’s milk protein, have gastroenteritis or you consume milk from bovine hormone injected cows. As with most foods, milk when consumed as part of a balanced diet can play a beneficial role in your health. For a quick answer click here.

EXPLANATION

Several anti-milk and anti-dairy product claims have become quite popular in recent years, especially with vegan enthusiasts and since the beginning of the Paleo diet craze.

The most common of these claims state that milk causes osteoporosis, that it is not natural to drink milk after weaning and that lactose intolerant people should completely avoid milk. These claims have, however, been disproven by scientific evidence.

Nevertheless, before reaching for a glass of milk you need to consider the positive and negative effects of milk and milk products, including the unethical treatment of cows in the meat and milk industry.

Do humans need milk in their diets?

The short answer is no, but dairy is a very valuable food group. We can obtain all of the nutrients from other sources in a balanced diet. However, unless you don’t produce enough lactase or are allergic to milk’s protein, there is no reason why a balanced diet cannot include milk and dairy products.

Milk and other dairy products are easily available and rich in some important nutrients (see section below titled “Why is milk good for us”). It is perfectly fine to consume milk and dairy products in moderation.

Some studies show that milk consumption can cause some types of cancer and other health problems. However, they usually use a higher than usual amount of milk. In addition, many of these studies are only observational and therefore do not provide strong evidence.

The bottom line is that any food consumed in excess can cause health issues, including the healthiest foods on the planet. To see now much milk is too much click here.

Myths and misconceptions regarding milk

There are claims regarding milk consumption that are either unscientific or are not backed by strong scientific evidence.

  • Is it unnatural for adults to drink milk?
    One of the most common argument against drinking milk is that other animals do not drink milk from another species. Therefore, it must be unnatural and humans shouldn’t drink milk either.
    Humans had a different evolutionary path from other mammals. Part of it was due to the domestication of other animals and the subsequent diet change. It is also simply impractical and physically difficult for other adult mammals to suck the milk from their mother or other mammals. That was also something that humans developed.In this context, the association between other mammals and humans in order to explain why we shouldn’t drink milk is illogical and unscientific. (read more..)
  • Do all lactose intolerant people need to avoid milk and milk products?
    Definitely not. Lactose intolerance is not a milk allergy where milk protein needs to be avoided due to potentially severe allergic reactions.Lactose intolerance means that the lactose amount needs to be restricted to the quantity that can be handled by the available lactase enzymes. This amount varies between individuals so it is not a one fits all solution”. (read more..)
  • Milk does not cause osteoporosis!
    Milk and dairy products prevent rather than cause osteoporosis. (read more..)

When is milk bad for you – scientific evidence

Milk can be bad for you in certain circumstances. The following is a list of some cases where milk consumption should be avoided or restricted.

  • People with allergy to milk protein
    Since milk allergy symptoms can be potentially life-threatening, it is recommended to completely avoid milk and dairy products. (read more..)
  • People with lactose intolerance
    Lactose intolerance is quite common. It affects around 70% of the total human population. This condition appears when one cannot break down lactose efficiently after infancy.The level of lactose intolerance, however, varies between individuals.If you suffer from lactose intolerance, you don’t necessarily need to avoid milk. Since the tolerance levels differ between individuals, it is recommended that you determine your side-effect free limit.Milk and milk/dairy products are very valuable parts of our diet, not only because of their rich nutrient composition but also for all of the culinary aspects.

    For these reasons, it is worth including the amount of dairy that don’t cause any negative reactions. (read more..)

  • Milk containing hormones may be potentially harmful
    Some companies inject cows with rBGH hormones in order to increase their milk production. In spite of the claims that these hormones don’t cause direct health issues in humans through cow’s milk consumption, they have not actually been proven to be safe.
    These hormones are definitely not safe for cows, since they cause udder infections and other health issues, making it unethical. Many countries have used this argument to ban the sale of milk and meat from the rBGH injected cattle. These cows are treated for mastitis with antibiotics, creating another grey area in safety in human consumption.
    Milk from infected cows also contains pus. (read more..)Milk (and meat) coming from factory farms where cows are fed with antibiotics and hormones and live in unacceptable conditions should be avoided.

    We simply cannot trust what exactly is being added to their feed or what these animals are being injected with.

  • Milk and prostate cancer
    Consuming excessive amounts of milk and milk products may increase the risk of prostate cancer in men. The available scientific studies are somewhat conflicting and only observational.Out of the two large reviews, one showed no association, while the other showed that 2.5 servings or more may increase the chances of developing prostate cancer compared with having 0.5 servings or less. (read more..)
  • Contaminants in milk and dairy products
    In addition to the above unwanted milk components, milk may contain various amounts of contaminants.

    These can include: (1)Contaminants of Milk and Dairy Products: Contamination Resulting from Farm and Dairy Practices. Available here.
    Direct contaminants from milking utensils, treatment of the udders, milk/daily processing, packaging and preservatives such as: heavy metals, various additives, disinfectants, mycotoxins, and other additives.
    Indirect contaminants from the environment and veterinary applications such as: antibiotics, hormones, various chemicals, radionuclides, organic pollutants and mycotoxins. The amounts of these toxins vary depending on agricultural, hygienic and veterinary practices. Although the contaminants must adhere to the safety standards, incidents of milk contamination sometimes occur with disastrous consequences.2013 – Europe (Balkans) – aflatoxin contamination (2)Dutch News. Second tanker of contaminated milk found. Available here. (3)Savic M. Balkan states to step up food control on aflatoxins scare. Bloomberg.2013. Available here.
    2008 – China – milk contamination with melamine (4)Yang R, Huang W, Zhang L, Thomas M, Pei Xiaofang. Milk adulteration with melamine in China: crisis and response. View issue TOC, Volume 1, Issue 2, June 2009. Pages 111–116. Available here.
    1998 – Germany and Netherlands – milk contamination with dioxins (5)Malisch R. Increase of the PCDD/F-contamination of milk, butter and meat samples by use of contaminated citrus pulp. Volume 40, Issues 9–11, May–June 2000, Pages 1041–1053. Available here.
    1989 – Belgium – milk contamination with dioxin (6)Bernard A, Broeckaert F, De Poorter G, De Cock A, Hermans C, Saegerman C, et al. The Belgian PCB/Dioxin Incident: Analysis of the Food Chain Contamination and Health Risk Evaluation. Volume 88, Issue 1, January 2002, Pages 1-18. Available here.
    1955 – Japan – arsenic poisoning of milk powder (7)Dakeishi M, Murata K, Grandjean P. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder. Environmental Health20065:31. Available here.To reduce the risk of consuming contaminated milk and milk products use organic products.

  • Milk and acne
    A hormone called IGF-1 has been associated with acne. Since IGF-1 is present in cow’s milk, drinking milk may be connected with acne.However, a 2013 review showed that the dairy foods and acne association is weak and needs experimental studies for definite evidence. (8)Bhate K, Willams HC. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris. British Journal of Dermatology. Volume 168, Issue 3. March 2013. Pages 474–485. Available here. Milk from cows treated with the rBGH may contained elevated levels of IGF-1 and is more likely to cause acne than milk from non-treated cows. (read more..)

Why is milk good for us?

There are many health benefits of drinking milk. If there are none of the contraindications mentioned above, there is no reason why milk and milk products shouldn’t be included in everyone’s diet.

  • What is in milk?
    Milk is a great source of many nutrients (read more..):
    – Minerals such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium and zinc
    – Vitamins such as vitamin A, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B12 and Vitamin K2 (menaquinone)
    – High quality protein
    – Carbohydrates
    – Fat (in full fat milk, especially beneficial fats such as conjugated linoleic acid, trans-palmitoleic acid, and omega 3 fatty acids)
    – Bioactive peptides
    – Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM)
    – Probiotic bacteria (in fermented milk)Of course, these nutrients can be obtained from a variety of other foods. However, milk is one source that contains them all.
  • Milk and bones health
    Milk is beneficial for the bone health.
    There is strong evidence that a high amount of proteins in combination with calcium from foods such as milk, yogurt or cheese strengthens the bones and prevents osteoporosis. This connection contradicts the popular myth that acid-ash foods such as milk deteriorate the bone density.In addition to calcium, milk is high in phosphorus, vitamin D, magnesium, potassium and zinc which have bone building properties and enhance calcium bioavailability. (9)Hess JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Slavin JL. Dairy Foods: Current Evidence of their Effects on Bone, Cardiometabolic, Cognitive, and Digestive Health. Volume 15, Issue 2. March 2016. Pages 251–268. Available here. (read more..)

    Recent studies reveal that menaquinones (Vitamin K2) (primarily synthesized by bacteria and mostly available from cheese and curds) may have protective properties against vascular calcification and coronary heart disease. (10)Shea MK, Holden RM. Vitamin K Status and Vascular Calcification: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies. Available here. (11)Walther B, Karl JP, Booth SL, Boyaval P. Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: The Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements. Adv Nutr July 2013 Adv Nutr vol. 4: 463-473, 2013. Available here. (12)Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, Bots ML, Beulens JW, Geleijnse JM, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Sep;19(7):504-10. Available here. (13)Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, et al. Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr. November 1, 2004. vol. 134 no. 11 3100-3105. Available here.

  • Milk and heart health
    A high intake of menaquinones (vitamin K2) is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Milk and dairy products are the major source of dietary menaquinones in many regions. (14)Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, Bots ML, Beulens JW, Geleijnse JM, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Sep;19(7):504-10. Available here. (15)Walther B, Karl JP, Booth SL, Boyaval P. Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: The Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements. Adv Nutr July 2013 Adv Nutr vol. 4: 463-473, 2013. Available here. Other components of milk may also be protective of the heart: trans-palmitoleic acid, proteins, peptides, potassium, calcium and magnesium. (16)Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L. Components of a Cardioprotective Diet. Circulation. June 21, 2011, Volume 123, Issue 24. Available here.
  • Fermented milk and digestive system
    Fermented milk, such as yogurt and kefir, a great source of probiotics, can improve intestinal health. (17)Guarner F, Perdigon G, Corthier G, Salminen S, Koletzko B, Morelli L. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic? Br J Nutr. 2005 Jun;93(6):783-6. Available here. (18)de Oliveira Leite AM, Miguel MA, Peixoto RS, Rosado AS, Silva JT, Paschoalin VM. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage. Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Oct 30;44(2):341-9. Available here.
  • Fermented milk and antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in children
    Probiotics are associated with the reduced risk of AAD in children and adults. Good quality yogurt or kefir with a high content of probiotics may be beneficial. (19)Szajewska H, Ruszczyński M, Radzikowski A. Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr. 2006 Sep;149(3):367-372. Available here. (20)Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82. Available here.
  • Milk and cancer
    Milk fat is composed of: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, beta carotene, vitamins A and D. These are associated with anti-cancer activity. (21)Parodi PW. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Other Anticarcinogenic Agents of Bovine Milk Fat. Journal of Dairy Science. Volume 82, Issue 6, June 1999, Pages 1339-1349. Available here.A large 2011 meta-analysis and systematic review of cohort studies show that milk and dairy products, excluding cheese, are associated with the reduced risk of colorectal cancer. (22)Aune D, Lau R, Chan DSM, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, Norat T. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies Ann Oncol (2012) 23 (1): 37-45. Available here.
  • Milk/dairy and type 2 diabetes
    A large 2013 systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies found evidence of association between the consumption of dairy products, low-fat dairy products and cheese and the reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (23)Aune D, Norat T, Romundstadn P, Vatten LJ. Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. ajcn.059030. Available here.
  • Milk (whole) and weight loss
    Recent studies on whole milk and milk products, although inconclusive, indicate that dairy fat or high-fat dairy foods do not contribute to obesity, but may rather help in weight loss. (24)Kratz M, Baars T, Guyenet S. The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):1-24. Available here.
  • Teeth and tooth decay (dash studies)
    Calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D contents in milk contribute to the maintenance of normal teeth. (25)Hess JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Slavin JL. Dairy Foods: Current Evidence of their Effects on Bone, Cardiometabolic, Cognitive, and Digestive Health. Volume 15, Issue 2. March 2016. Pages 251–268. Available here.Epidemiological studies have shown that milk consumption has no negative effects on caries buildup, but may even prevent it in children, especially those with poor oral hygiene, who do not use fluoride and are on a high sucrose diet. (26)Petti S, Simonetti R, Simonetti D’Arca A. The effect of milk and sucrose consumption on caries in 6-to-11-year-old Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997 Sep;13(6):659-64. Available here.
  • Fermented milk and skin
    Although evidence is limited and further studies are needed, it has been shown that fermented dairy product consumption and topical application may be beneficial for the skin. (27)Vaughn AR, Sivamani BS, RK Sivamani. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. July 2015, 21(7): 380-385. Available here.
  • Milk and fermented milk and blood pressure
    Milk and fermented milk products have been shown to reduce blood pressure. (28)Massey LK. Dairy Food Consumption, Blood Pressure and Stroke. J. Nutr. July 1, 2001. vol. 131 no. 7 1875-1878. Available here.Fermented milk (with or without probiotics) contains inhibitory peptides (short chain amino-acids), that can reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive people. (29)Dong JY, Szeto I, Makinen K, Zhao Y. Effect of probiotic fermented milk on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. The British journal of nutrition 110(07):1-7 · July 2013. Available here. (30)Khalesi S, Sun J, Buys N, Jayasinghe R. Effect of Probiotics on Blood Pressure. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Hypertension. 2014; 64: 897-903. Available here. (31)Park YW, Nam MS. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2015; 35(6): 831–840. Available here.
  • Fermented milk and gastrointestinal health
    Bifidobacterium present in fermented milk may reduce irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, including IBS related constipation and bloating, thereby improving the health-related quality of life.Studies also show improvements in digestive and gastrointestinal symptoms in women who reported minor digestive symptoms. (32)Guyonnet D, Chassany O, Ducrotte P, Picard C, Mouret M, Mercier CH, Matuchansky C. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. AP&T. Volume 26, Issue 3. August 2007. Pages 475–486. Available here. (33)Guyonnet D, Schlumberger A, Mhamdi L, Jakob S, Chassany O. Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(11):1654-62. Available here. (34)Mareau P, Guyonnet D, de Micheaux L, Gelu S. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study and pooled analysis of two identical trials of fermented milk containing probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2494 in healthy women reporting minor digestive symptoms. Neurogastrenterology and Motility. Volume 25, Issue 4. April 2013. Pages 331–e252. Available here.
  • Other benefits
    New studies show that dairy consumption may help in reducing the risk of stroke through decreasing platelet aggregation and insulin resistance. However, more studies are needed. Although potassium seems to have the greatest effect, the combination of all 3 nutrients in milk (potassium, calcium and magnesium) seems to have the best effect. (35)Massey LK. Dairy Food Consumption, Blood Pressure and Stroke. J. Nutr. July 1, 2001. vol. 131 no. 7 1875-1878. Available here.Milk - good or bad?

Best milk to drink

After all the discussion about milk consumption and considering the great variety of milk products available in the market, it is important to determine which is the best milk to drink.

Here are some characteristics of the healthiest dairy products:

  • Organic – have comparatively small amounts of unwanted additives and toxins;
  • Full fat milk and dairy products obtained from grass-fed cows – are nutritiously superior to common milk, since they contain significantly higher amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. (36)Nuernberga K, Dannenbergera D, Nuernberga G, Endera K, Voigta J, Scollanb ND, et al. Effect of a grass-based and a concentrate feeding system on meat quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of Longissimus muscle in different cattle breeds. Livestock Production Science 94(1):137-147 · May 2005. Available here. (37)Hebeisen DF, Hoeflin F, Reusch HP, Junker E, Lauterburg BH. Increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in milk and platelet rich plasma of grass-fed cows. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 63(3):229-33. Available here.In recent decades, low fat products have been heavily promoted and whole milk has received a bad name, commonly associated with atherosclerosis and heart disease.However, saturated fat is not as harmful as commonly believed.  There is no scientific evidence that dairy fat and high fat dairy products contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Dairy fat may even contribute to a risk reduction of type 2 diabetes. (38)Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar; 91(3): 535–546. Available here. (39)Kratz M, Baars T, Guyenet S. The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):1-24. Available here.

    Whole milk contains trans-palmitoleate, which is associated with reduced insulin resistance, metabolic risk factors and diabetes incidence. More studies are needed, however. (40)Mozaffarian D, Cao H, King IB, Lemaitre RN, Song X, Siscovick DS, Hotamisligil GS. Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in U.S. adults: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Dec 21; 153(12): 790–799. Available here.

    However, full fat milk and milk products contain potentially cancerogenic constituents, such as conjugated linoleic acid and fat soluble vitamins, such as A and D. (41)Parodi PW. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Other Anticarcinogenic Agents of Bovine Milk Fat. Journal of Dairy Science. Volume 82, Issue 6, June 1999, Pages 1339-1349. Available here.

  • Fermented – (yogurt and kefir) are a great source of probiotics, improve the digestibility of lactose, are easier on the gut than milk since some lactose is turned into lactic acid, increase shelf life and enhance taste.For the best results, fermented milk should be of good quality, with lactic acid and a high amount of friendly bacteria”, such as Bifidobacterium, with no added sugar, refrigerated and consumed close to the day of production.
  • Pasteurized – although outbreaks of diseases related to unpasteurized milk and milk products are not common and affect a relatively low number of people, having pasteurized milk products significantly lowers the risk. (42)Centers for disease control and prevention. Foodborne outbreaks. Available here.

Best milk to drink

CONCLUSION

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The answer to the question is not black and white and varies from individual to individual.

A large part of the population has some level of lactose intolerance, meaning that milk consumption needs to be restricted on an individual level. The restriction may be also important in men due to the prostate cancer risk.

In addition, a small percentage of the population suffers from milk protein allergies. Therefore, the consumption of all dairy products should be avoided.

Milk can also contain various contaminants, depending on many environmental and milk production factors. In this case, the consumption of those specific products should be restricted.

On the other hand, milk and dairy products are very nutritious and have many health benefits, including protective properties against some of the deadliest diseases such as heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer.

For individuals who do not experience allergies and are not highly sensitive to lactose, milk and dairy products are a healthy part of a balanced diet, but only in amounts that are tolerable on an individual basis.

References   [ + ]

1. Contaminants of Milk and Dairy Products: Contamination Resulting from Farm and Dairy Practices. Available here.
2. Dutch News. Second tanker of contaminated milk found. Available here.
3. Savic M. Balkan states to step up food control on aflatoxins scare. Bloomberg.2013. Available here.
4. Yang R, Huang W, Zhang L, Thomas M, Pei Xiaofang. Milk adulteration with melamine in China: crisis and response. View issue TOC, Volume 1, Issue 2, June 2009. Pages 111–116. Available here.
5. Malisch R. Increase of the PCDD/F-contamination of milk, butter and meat samples by use of contaminated citrus pulp. Volume 40, Issues 9–11, May–June 2000, Pages 1041–1053. Available here.
6. Bernard A, Broeckaert F, De Poorter G, De Cock A, Hermans C, Saegerman C, et al. The Belgian PCB/Dioxin Incident: Analysis of the Food Chain Contamination and Health Risk Evaluation. Volume 88, Issue 1, January 2002, Pages 1-18. Available here.
7. Dakeishi M, Murata K, Grandjean P. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder. Environmental Health20065:31. Available here.
8. Bhate K, Willams HC. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris. British Journal of Dermatology. Volume 168, Issue 3. March 2013. Pages 474–485. Available here.
9. Hess JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Slavin JL. Dairy Foods: Current Evidence of their Effects on Bone, Cardiometabolic, Cognitive, and Digestive Health. Volume 15, Issue 2. March 2016. Pages 251–268. Available here.
10. Shea MK, Holden RM. Vitamin K Status and Vascular Calcification: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies. Available here.
11. Walther B, Karl JP, Booth SL, Boyaval P. Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: The Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements. Adv Nutr July 2013 Adv Nutr vol. 4: 463-473, 2013. Available here.
12. Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, Bots ML, Beulens JW, Geleijnse JM, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Sep;19(7):504-10. Available here.
13. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, et al. Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr. November 1, 2004. vol. 134 no. 11 3100-3105. Available here.
14. Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, Bots ML, Beulens JW, Geleijnse JM, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Sep;19(7):504-10. Available here.
15. Walther B, Karl JP, Booth SL, Boyaval P. Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: The Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements. Adv Nutr July 2013 Adv Nutr vol. 4: 463-473, 2013. Available here.
16. Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L. Components of a Cardioprotective Diet. Circulation. June 21, 2011, Volume 123, Issue 24. Available here.
17. Guarner F, Perdigon G, Corthier G, Salminen S, Koletzko B, Morelli L. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic? Br J Nutr. 2005 Jun;93(6):783-6. Available here.
18. de Oliveira Leite AM, Miguel MA, Peixoto RS, Rosado AS, Silva JT, Paschoalin VM. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage. Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Oct 30;44(2):341-9. Available here.
19. Szajewska H, Ruszczyński M, Radzikowski A. Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr. 2006 Sep;149(3):367-372. Available here.
20. Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82. Available here.
21. Parodi PW. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Other Anticarcinogenic Agents of Bovine Milk Fat. Journal of Dairy Science. Volume 82, Issue 6, June 1999, Pages 1339-1349. Available here.
22. Aune D, Lau R, Chan DSM, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, Norat T. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies Ann Oncol (2012) 23 (1): 37-45. Available here.
23. Aune D, Norat T, Romundstadn P, Vatten LJ. Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. ajcn.059030. Available here.
24. Kratz M, Baars T, Guyenet S. The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):1-24. Available here.
25. Hess JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Slavin JL. Dairy Foods: Current Evidence of their Effects on Bone, Cardiometabolic, Cognitive, and Digestive Health. Volume 15, Issue 2. March 2016. Pages 251–268. Available here.
26. Petti S, Simonetti R, Simonetti D’Arca A. The effect of milk and sucrose consumption on caries in 6-to-11-year-old Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997 Sep;13(6):659-64. Available here.
27. Vaughn AR, Sivamani BS, RK Sivamani. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. July 2015, 21(7): 380-385. Available here.
28. Massey LK. Dairy Food Consumption, Blood Pressure and Stroke. J. Nutr. July 1, 2001. vol. 131 no. 7 1875-1878. Available here.
29. Dong JY, Szeto I, Makinen K, Zhao Y. Effect of probiotic fermented milk on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. The British journal of nutrition 110(07):1-7 · July 2013. Available here.
30. Khalesi S, Sun J, Buys N, Jayasinghe R. Effect of Probiotics on Blood Pressure. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Hypertension. 2014; 64: 897-903. Available here.
31. Park YW, Nam MS. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2015; 35(6): 831–840. Available here.
32. Guyonnet D, Chassany O, Ducrotte P, Picard C, Mouret M, Mercier CH, Matuchansky C. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. AP&T. Volume 26, Issue 3. August 2007. Pages 475–486. Available here.
33. Guyonnet D, Schlumberger A, Mhamdi L, Jakob S, Chassany O. Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(11):1654-62. Available here.
34. Mareau P, Guyonnet D, de Micheaux L, Gelu S. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study and pooled analysis of two identical trials of fermented milk containing probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2494 in healthy women reporting minor digestive symptoms. Neurogastrenterology and Motility. Volume 25, Issue 4. April 2013. Pages 331–e252. Available here.
35. Massey LK. Dairy Food Consumption, Blood Pressure and Stroke. J. Nutr. July 1, 2001. vol. 131 no. 7 1875-1878. Available here.
36. Nuernberga K, Dannenbergera D, Nuernberga G, Endera K, Voigta J, Scollanb ND, et al. Effect of a grass-based and a concentrate feeding system on meat quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of Longissimus muscle in different cattle breeds. Livestock Production Science 94(1):137-147 · May 2005. Available here.
37. Hebeisen DF, Hoeflin F, Reusch HP, Junker E, Lauterburg BH. Increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in milk and platelet rich plasma of grass-fed cows. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 63(3):229-33. Available here.
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