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Studies show that soluble fiber reduces cholesterol
Various studies show that soluble fiber, from such sources as oats, psyllium and pectin, can reduce total and LDL (Low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol by a small amount. (read more on high fiber food sources here)
A large meta-analysis of 67 studies and 2990 participants has shown a significant decrease in total cholesterol in 60-70% of all the trials. The results were similar for all types of soluble fiber: (1, 2, 3)
- soluble fiber reduces total and LDL cholesterol irrespective whether one has very high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia >6.2mmol/L or >240mg/dL) or lower cholesterol concentrations;
- a practical dosage of 1-10 g daily of soluble fiber can decrease LDL and total cholesterol by approximately 1%-2%;
- dietary fiber has an insignificant effect on the change in HDL (known as “good”) cholesterol;
- soluble fiber, that has viscous properties from oatmeal, reduces LDL cholesterol, including small, dense LDL cholesterol which is one of the risk factors in Cardiovascular Disease (CDV).
How does it work?
The mechanism of cholesterol reduction it is still unknown. There are, however, several hypotheses: (1)
- soluble fibers bind cholesterol and bile acids and remove cholesterol in the stool;
- up-regulation of cholesterol receptors. Lower cholesterol levels in the cells leads to cells producing more receptors on its surface to be able to capture more cholesterol. That increase in receptors is call up-regulation;
- fermentation process of fibers produces short-chain fatty acids which has shown to inhibit cholesterol production in rats;
- presence of fiber improves intestinal contractions;
- highly viscous fiber diet slows down the absorption of macronutrients which improves insulin sensitivity;
- lowers the overall energy intake from diet due to increased satiety.
Fiber in the cardiovascular disease context
- LDL cholesterol consists of small, dense cholesterol and large cholesterol. Only the dense cholesterol particles are a risk factor in CDV. This means that the Total Cholesterol and LDL cholesterol tests currently used are not good indicators for CDV risk. (read more..)
- The studies mentioned above show a reduction of small, dense types as a part of LDLs. As the reduction of LDLs was 1-2%, this means that the reduction of their small, dense fraction will be even smaller.
- High HDL “good cholesterol” is associated with lower risk of CDV but fiber does not seem to change the amount of HDL in the blood significantly.
- Dietary fiber protects against high C-reactive protein (CRP) which is an inflammatory indicator and another risk factor of CDV.
- Viscous fiber contributes to weight loss and reduces the risk of CDV. (read more..)
NUTRITION FACTS VS NUTRITION MYTHS
You will find a summary of the most common nutrition myths and evidence-based nutrition facts here.