About 20% of glucose gets metabolized in the liver, which is quite different to fructose metabolism which occurs mostly in the liver. The rest is distributed to most of the body cells for energy production and storage (e.g. in muscles as glycogen). (1, 2)
Part of the ingested glucose will end up in the liver cells, specifically in components where the energy is produced called mitochondria, where:
- some of the glucose is converted to energy (ATP), essential for the cells to perform their day to day functions, and;
- some will be released from the mitochondria as a substance called citrate.
The elevated insulin (as a result of increased blood glucose) stimulates the lipid forming enzymes in the liver.
Citrate released from mitochondria, with the help of these enzymes, gets converted to VLDL particles which are then released to the bloodstream. VLDLs are associated with heart disease and obesity.